adelinafransiska79

Without God we're nothing :"))

My Laptop (Descriptive Paragraph)

My Laptop

Everyone has a favorite thing, of course they have some reasons why did they like their favorite thing. I included, I also have my favorite thing, and it is laptop. Why did I say like that? For me, laptop is useful and has many functions. Here, I want to describe my laptop. The size of my laptop is big size, it is about 14 inch as a usual laptop and the brand is Ac-er. It has black color, but another color for laptop these are red, white, and etc. As I am a student, I need laptop to do my task, almost all of the tasks of my course need laptop. For example, through Microsoft word, Microsoft excel, and Microsoft power point. I often do my tasks through these programs. So, it means that my laptop is very useful and can help me to do my task. On the other hand, when I feel tired after I do finish my task, I often change it with playing games, watching CD/DVD and sometimes I also listen to music through my laptop. Another benefit of my laptop is by communicating via internet. In this modern area, we can meet or communicate with each other without meet directly. Luckily, I can do it by communicating via internet. Such as using Skype or we called it “Video call”, using mail or email, and the last one is by using Facebook and twitter. That’s all about describe my laptop.

 

 

 

 

 

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Task 321 :)

3 Things about me-My profile

-I love singing

-I love travelling

2 Things about what I expect in writing course :-I hope I can  write a good paragraph and elaborate the vocabularies

-I hope I understand the kinds of paragraph which I will learn and can differentiate it

1 Thing that I suggest in writing course :If you want to be a good writer, you have to practice as often as you can. Do not fear of being wrong when writing because it is a process.  Keep trying !

My name is Adelina Fransiska, eyeryone calls me Adel. Do you know a famous singer who has name “Adelle” ?? most of us know her. Yes, as her name, some people call me Adelle. sometimes they asked me to sing a song, but I just laughing. Honestly I love singing, I love it when I was elementary school. I ever joined a singing competition, it was called Dame Idol. I also like travelling, when I feel tired with my daily activities, I can change it when I am doing travelling, it can refresh my mind. Usually, I do travelling with my classmates on weekend.

Now, I am in the fourth semester. I am following writing II course. Certainly, I have expectations in this course. I hope, I can write a good paragraph and elaborate the vocabularies and I will understand the kinds of paragraph which I will learn and I can differentiate it.

I suggest to all my friends, if you want to be a good writer, you have to practice as often as you can. Do not fear of being wrong when writing because it is a process. Let’s learn together and keep trying!!

 

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THE LEXICAL, SYNTATICAL, SPELLING, AND PRONOUNCIATION DIFFERENCES BETWEEN AMERICAN AND BRITISH

American English is now different from its British mother and we could say it is more than another dialect due to its importance nowadays. At the beginning of its history, after the American emancipation, there were two opposite attitudes towards the language: those who wanted to eradicate any legacy from the colonization and did not want a British model for their language and those who felt language loyalty towards mother- English. But finally, as in many British colonies, linguistic emancipation was a consequence of politics.

The growing importance of American English is also due to politics: after World War II, when the United States assumed a more global role and had greater influence in fields such as economic, technological and political, America became a linguistic model. As well as this American English has a dominant influence in the world because in US there is 70% of the native English speakers’ population, for its big publishing industry and mass media technology and for the magnitude of higher education.

The main differences between British English and American English are pronunciation, spelling and lexicon. However, syntax is not a big difference. Now we are going to have a glimpse at each, illustrating them with some examples.

Referring to pronunciation we can settle some basic parameters to see the difference between dialects. First we have the merger of [I] and [å] before nasal consonants, makes pin and pen homophones in the American dialect. Many words that used to be stressed on their second syllable are now stressed in their first syllable (like reconcile) but in America nowadays this process is even more rapid. Words like cigar, hotel and Detroit are now front-stressed. Then there is the deletion or reduction of weakly stressed syllables, a process that has been really important in English phonetics. 

A.  Introduction

Today, English has become the universal language. It is spoken all over the world. British and American English are the two national varieties of English. American English is not a separate language as an American language. Yet it is a distinct kind of English. British and America are “two great countries separated by the same language”. It should be remembered English are two different national verities of English. American English is now not only a variety of English but an independent language. Difference between British English and American English in the way that the same language is spoken in different places are called varieties or dialects. These varieties may be regional or national. The differences between American English and British English in the field of syntax, pronunciation, spellings, and vocabulary.

A.  LEXICAL DIFFERENCES

Overview of lexical differences

Note: A lexicon is not made up of different words but different “units of meaning” (lexical units or lexical items e.g. “fly ball” in baseball), including idioms and figures of speechThis makes it easier to compare the dialects.

Though the influence of cross-culture media has done much to familiarize BrE and AmE speakers with each other’s regional words and terms, many words are still recognized as part of a single form of English. Though the use of a British word would be acceptable in AmE (and vice versa), most listeners would recognize the word as coming from the other form of English and treat it much the same as a word borrowed from any other language. For instance a British speaker using the word chap or mate to refer to a friend would be heard in much the same way as an American using the Spanish word amigo.

Words and phrases that have their origins in BrE

Most speakers of AmE are aware of some BrE terms, although they may not generally use them or may be confused as to whether someone intends the American or British meaning (such as for biscuit). It is generally very easy to guess what some words, such as “driving licence”, mean. However, use of many other British words such as naff (slang but commonly used to mean “not very good”) are unheard of in American English.

Words and phrases that have their origins in AmE

Speakers of BrE are likely to understand most common AmE terms, examples such as “sidewalk”, “gas (gasoline/petrol)”, “counterclockwise” or “elevator (lift)”, without any problem, thanks in part to considerable exposure to American popular culture and literature. Certain terms that are heard less frequently, especially those likely to be absent or rare in American popular culture, e.g. “copacetic (satisfactory)”, are unlikely to be understood by most BrE speakers.

An early factor in the evolution of American English was the need to name unfamiliar features of the landscape, flora, and fauna of the New World. One source for such words was the rich, but often difficult (for English speakers) vocabulary of the Native Americans. Captain John Smith, in trying to transcribe the Algonquian word meaning “he scratches with his hands”–arakun– wrote rahougcum (1608). This is the source of our now-familiar word, raccoon. Other words derived from Native American languages include: caucus (possibly from Algonkin cau’-cau-as’u, used by Captain John Smith, who spelled it “Caw-cawaassough”), hickory (< pohickery), hominy, moccasin, moose, muskrat (< muskwessu), opossum, papoose, pecan, persimmon, pone, powwow, skunk, squash (< asquutasquash), squaw, succotash (from Narragansett msiquatash), terrapin, toboggan, tomahawk, totem, wigwam, and woodchuck (< otchek).

Earlier Spanish and Portuguese explorers, encountering Native Americans in the West Indies, Mexico, and Central and South American, had provided forms that became the English words barbecue (<Arawak barbacoa, “a raised platform of sticks”), cannibal, canoe (<Arawak canoa), chocolate (<Nahuatl chocolátl), maize (<Arawak marisi), potato, tomato (<Nahuatl tomatl), and savannah. Although it enters the language somewhat later (ca. 1825), the word coyote also derives from the Nahuatl word coyotl (via Spanish).

B.   SYNTATIC DIFFERENCES

 The differences in grammar and syntax between American English and British English are small but notable. The two minor differences are concerned with word from ‘dive’ and the phrase ‘do have’. The American use the from dived and the phrase do have. The American use the from dove for the from dived in British English. Another difference of grammar is concerned with the pronoun ‘one’. An American will say, “ if one loses his temper, one should apologies.” Thus he will use the third person pronoun for ‘one’ , but an Englishman will say: “if one loses one’s temper, one should apologies”. Thus an Englishman will use the pronoun ‘one’ for all the times.

Another difference of syntax between these two varieties of English lines in the use of collective nouns. In British English both singular and plural verbs can be used for the collective nouns. The syntactic differences between British English and American English are particularly noticed in the expression of time.

The American says ‘five after eight’

But

The Englishman say ‘five past eight’.

Am. English – I haven’t see her in ages.

Br. English – I haven’t seen her for ages.                

Am. English – Monday through Friday.

Br. English – Monday to Friday inclusive.

Am. English – I looked out the window.

Br. English – I looked out of the window.

 One more difference lies in the use of the preposition after the verb differently. In American English ‘than’ is used but in British English, ‘from or to’ is used. ‘shall is rarely used in American English except in formal styles used. Will is commoner:

                                                                

British English

American English

I shall ask you later.

I will ask you later.

Shall I close the door?

Should close the door?

I shall be able to do it.

I won’t be able  to do it.

 

Would and will in British English is often used in predictive sense where as in American English should or must is used for ex.

Br. English – ought we always to tell you?

Am. English – should we always tell you?

Br. English – you oughtn’t to have done.

Am. English – you shouldn’t have done that.

The copular verbs seem, act, look and sound are normally followed by the preposition like in American English and seem by the infinite to be.

In British English on the other hand by an indefinite N.P.for ex.

Br. English – she acted real clever.

Am. English – she acted like real clever.

Br. English – That sound a bad idea.

Am. English – That sounds like a bad idea.

Br. English – The car looks a nice one.

Am. English – The car looks like a nice one.

          Humorous other deviations mark the American English from the British English regarding preposition placing use of adjectives and adverbs etc.

         Thus, there are certain syntactic differences between American English and British English.

Differences in Punctuation, Grammar and Syntax

The most obvious punctuation difference between the two versions is the way quotations are marked. The original American version uses quotation marks (“xx”), while the British version employs inverted commas (‘x’). American and British English also use inverted commas and quotation marks differently, respectively, when marking a quotation within another quotation:

  • U.S.: “’Oh, is that your suit?’ I said. ‘This is the first I ever heard about it.’…” p.35
  • U.K.: ‘…”Oh, is that your suit?” I said. “This is the first I ever heard about it.”…’ p.41

Also, in American English commas and periods are always inside closing quotation marks, whereas the British may place them either inside or outside, depending whether they were part of the text quoted, as can be seen from the following examples:

  • U.S.: “I think he killed a man,” and… p.49
  • U.K.: ‘I think he killed a man’, and… p.55

Commas

In general, the British version had more commas than the American one, as can be seen in the table below.

The use of commas 1

The American Version

The British Version

broke off ceasing to compel my attention

broke off, ceasing to compel my attention

days under sun and rain

days, under sun and rain

afternoon and when

afternoon, and when

went toward the little office mingling immediately

went toward the little office, mingling immediately

discussing in impassioned voices whether

discussing, in impassioned voices, whether

There were, however, occasions when the person “translating” the novel from American to British English has removed commas instead of adding them:

 The use of commas 2

The American Version

The British Version

the evening, too, would be over

the evening too would be over

introduced himself, a butler

introduced himself a butler

tongue, and, moreover, you

tongue and, moreover, you

C.  Phonological differences

         American English differs from British English in the field of pronunciation also. The first difference is concerned with the vowel sound. In such words as “grass”,  “dance” and “fast”. In British English all these words are spoken with the  vowel / a: / but in American English they are spoken with the vowel /x /.

           The second difference of pronunciation is concerned with the consonant / r /. In British English /r/ is pronounced only before a vowel. An Englishman will not pronounce in the words like “farm, lord, and door. But in American English /r/ is pronounced in all position.

            The third difference of pronunciation is noticed in stress or accent and intonation. In American English both word stress and sentence stress are weaker than in British English. Similarly intonation in American English is more leveled as consequently American conversation is more monotonous than British English. The differences for instance between American English and British English intonation of question, calling for an answer of Yes or No.

 

Am. English – Did it all happen yesterday?

Br. English – Did it all happen yesterday

            The rhythm of general American English speech shows characteristics of its own connected with the treatment of unstressed and secondarily stressed syllables. A more even distribution of conspicuous syllables reflects an older pronunciation of many polysyllabic words.

          Another point of pronunciation difference between the two varieties of English is found in the utterance of syllables. The American pronounce the unstressed syllables with greater clearness as compared to the English for ex.- they will pronounce the necessary as /            / rather pronouncing it is

/                 / , dictionary – /                  / as /                  /,

Oratory – /                      / as /               /.

          Thus there are certain differences between American English and British English as far as pronunciation is concerned. The differences make American English slower in pronunciation and also give it a nasal effect.

 

D.    Spelling differences

 There are many spelling differences between the two varieties in the field of spelling is notable. These differences are made by Noah Webster.

1)      There are words without the “u” in British English. Such words are:        

 

American English

British English

Honor

Honour

Color

Colour

Favor

favour

Cheqe

Chequr

Nabor

neighbour

Harbor

Harbour

Humor

Humour

Labor

Labour

Rumor

Rumour

Behavior

Behaviour

 

In American English are words with “er” instead of “re” of British English.

British English

American English 

Centre

Center

Litre

Liter

Theatre

theater

Spectur

specter

                               

2)      Certain words are spelled with an “s” replaced by “c”.

British English

American English

Defence

Defense

Pretence

Pretense

Recompence

Recompense

Practice

Practice

Licence

license

 

3)      There are certain modern technical words in American English and British English.

American English

British English

Draft

Draught

Curb

Kerb

Archeology

Archaeology

Ax

Axe

Chili

Chilli

Paralyze

Paralyse

Plow

Plough

Pajamas

Pyjamas

Kilogram

kilogramme

 

4)      In British English are some words use single “L” and the American English some words use double “LL”.

American English

British English

Canceled

Cancelled

Counselor

Counsellor

Cruelest

Cruelest

Modeling

Modeling

Quarreled

Quarreled

Signaling

Signaling

Traveler

traveller

 

“Same pronunciation, but different spelling

 

British English

American English

Difference

savours

Savors

Elimination of “u”

tyre

Tire

“y” becomes “i”

grey

Gray

“e” becomes “a”

sombre

Somber

“e” and “r” switch places

 

Conclusion

         In this way, American English has its own peculiarities or features which differentiate it from British English that is syntactic, pronunciation, spellings and vocabulary. But there are remarkable differences between the two. They are national verities of English. Many old usages of English of 17 century have been survived in standard American English. New words also are added.

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The Interest Place

Eiffel Tower

    

A.    Eiffel Tower History

Before going through the Eiffel Tower history, you must know why Eiffel Tower was constructed. The Eiffel Tower was constructed as a theme structure for an exposition held in Paris in the year 1889. The Eiffel Tower was supposed to be built in Barcelona, but the Barcelonian government thought the construction would be expensive and rejected the proposal. Well, the French are lucky to have the most romantic attraction of the world.

Now, the Eiffel Tower history

Gustave Eiffel, a French Engineer and expert in metallic structures was the brain behind the creation of the Eiffel Tower. Émile

Gustave Eiffel – Eiffel Tower History

Nouguier and Maurice Koechlin are the key persons behind the planning and designing of the Eiffel Tower. The patents covering the tower were filed jointly by Eiffel, Nouguier, and Koechlin – the latter two eventually sold their rights to Eiffel in exchange for a percentage of the revenue generated by the tower. The outstanding structure was built by 300 labor workers and there was just one mishap during the construction in which one worker died. Construction was started on January 26, 1887 and was completed on March 31, 1889. On 6th of May, the Eiffel Tower was opened to the public. It took two years, two months, and five days to complete the construction.

Right from the beginning of the construction the Eiffel Tower and Gustave Eiffel received many criticisms. When the exposition was closed, all the nearby buildings were removed. Eiffel Tower which was supposed to be demolished was left untouched due to the usefulness of it in radio transmission and communication. When building the tower, Eiffel wanted to build it wind resistant and hence it was built purely on mathematical calculation. The Tower got its name from its creator Gustave Eiffel.

The tower stands 324 metres (1,063 ft) tall, about the same height as an 81-storey building. During its construction, the Eiffel Tower surpassed the Washington Monument to assume the title of the tallest man-made structure in the world, a title it held for 41 years, until the Chrysler Building in New York City was built in 1930. Because of the addition, in 1957, of the antenna atop the Eiffel Tower, it is now taller than the Chrysler Building. Not including broadcast antennas, it is the second-tallest structure in France, after the Millau Viaduct.

·  The Eiffel Tower is made of iron and weighs around 10000 tonnes.

·  Around 50 tonnes of paint are added to the Eiffel Tower every 7 years to protect it from rust.

·  Despite its height, the Eiffel Tower was designed to be wind resistant, swaying only a few inches in the wind. It actually moves further when the iron on the sun facing side heats and expands, moving the top up to 7 inches (18 centimetres) away from the sun.

·  Temperature also alters the height of the Eiffel Tower by up to 6 inches (15 centimetres).

·  Millions of people climb the Eiffel Tower every year and it has had over 250 million visitors since its opening.

·  Visitors can climb up stairs to the first two levels or take a lift which also has access to the third and highest level.

The Eiffel Tower history is very remarkable not just because of its aesthetic looks, but for the mathematical precision and accuracy it possess, even though it was built in the era when there was limited technology.

B.     Why do people visit the Eiffel tower ?

I never visited the Eiffel tower, I’m very interested to go to Paris and visit the Eiffel Tower. Many people have visited the eiffel tower because :

            ·  Because they find it beautiful

·  Because they have seen it in pictures and film heard about it and its a very unusual building.

·  Because they have a view of Paris and all its surroundings, as far as 80 km.

·  Because that will give you something unforgettable to tell to your grandchildren.

C.    Why the Eiffel tower was called “the romantic place”????

 Do  you really want to spend an unforgettable vacation and you do not know what is the best place where to go?  Are you  inlove and you want to enjoy a lovely experience together with your partner? Then you need to choose  one of the best romantic places in the world. There are a lot of incredible romantic places  where to delight yourself with majestic views and pleasant ambiances and with breathtaking panoramas.

Paris ??? It sounds great… It is a destination full of romantic places, filled with originality and creativity. It is the perfect place for romantics. Its structures and sites are absolutely gorgeous, especially its Eiffel Tower, which is an imposing landmark and one of the country’s  symbols.  For more than 100 years the slender and the bold structure continues to be a trully emblem of the capital of France. Initially considered like something horrible and useless, over the time, the Eiffel Tower became a truly amazing symbol of Paris, being the most visited touristic attraction, attracting million of tourists annually. It is almost impossible to visit Paris without seeing the Eiffel Tower. Even if you are not tempted to see this wonderful and world  famous monument you will see its top all over Paris. Who signed it into righteous indignation?  Here are just a few names: Charles Gounod, Alexander Dumas, Leconte de Lisle, Sully Prudhomme, Guy de Maupassant … In short, a whole constellation of outstanding masters of culture – the pride of the French. They obviously fought for the existence of the Eiffel Tower!

D.    CONCLUSION

I saw a film that was created by Kristina Cuneta, daughter of Sharon Cuneta. It was a short film about her stay in Paris and her schooling there. The film featured this magnificent tower. I can’t help myself to promise that one day I will be able to visit this place.

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